Neopets, a website that allows children to care for “virtual pets,” has exposed a wide range of sensitive data online including credentials needed to access company databases, employee emails, and even repositories containing the proprietary code for the site, according to information shared with The Security Ledger.
The data includes the IP addresses of Neopets visitors, information that could be used to target Neopets users, according to independent researcher John Jackson, who said he discovered the information after scanning the company’s website with a security tool.
Stolen Accounts For Sale
Neopets is a “virtual pet website” that first launched in 1999. It permits users – many of them children – to care for virtual pets and buy virtual items for them using virtual points earned in-game (Neopoints) or with “Neocash” that can be purchased with real-world money, or won in-game. Purchased by Viacom for $160 million in 2005, in 2017, it was acquired by the Chinese company NetDragon.
In an email to The Security Ledger, Jackson said that he noticed Neopets accounts being offered for sale on an online forum. That prompted him to run a scan on the Neopets site using a forensics tool. That scan revealed a Neopets subdomain that exposed the guts of the Neopets website, Jackson said via instant message.
“We looked through and found employee emails, database credentials and their whole codebase,” he said.
Jackson shared screen shots of the Neopets directory as well as snippets of code captured from the site that suggest credentials were “hard coded,” or embedded in the underlying code of the website. Working with security researcher Nick Sahler, Jackson was able to download Website’s entire codebase, revealing database credentials, employee emails, user IP addresses and private code repositories. The two researchers also uncovered internal IP addresses and the underlying application logic for the entire Neopets application.
“This is extremely bad because even though we didn’t attempt to access PII (personally identifying information), with these codebases we can undoubtedly do so,” Jackson said. “They need to fix the root issues, otherwise they will suffer yet another threat-actor related breach.”
Jackson and Sahler said they have reported their findings to Neopets and provided copies of email exchanges with a support tech at the company who said he would pass the issue to “one of our coders.”
Neopets has not yet responded to requests for comment on the researchers’ allegations.
If true, this would be the second serious security incident involving the Neopets site. In 2016, the company acknowledged a breach that spilled usernames, passwords, IP addresses and other personal information for some 27 million users. That breach may have occurred as early as 2013, according to the website HaveIbeenPwned.
The issue appears to be related to a misconfigured Apache web server, Jackson said. Though many web-based applications are hosted on infrastructure owned by cloud providers such as Amazon, Google or Microsoft’s Azure, leaked documents indicate that the 20 year-old Neopets website continues to operate from infrastructure it owns and operates.
Misconfigured web servers are a frequent source of security breaches -whether self-hosted or hosted by a third party. In 2017, credit rating agency Equifax acknowledged that a hole in the Apache Struts platform first identified in March, 2017 and patched in August of that year was used by hackers to compromise a web application and gain access to the information which included names, email addresses and, for US residents, Social Security Numbers. The vulnerability, identified as CVE-2017-5638, was associated with a string of attacks in 2017 and 2018.
High Bar for Collecting Information on Children
The breach could spell legal trouble for Neopets andWebsites and NetDragon. Online firms that manage information on children are held to a high standard under the federal Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA”).
In June, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced that it reached a settlement with children’s mobile application developer HyperBeard Inc. that included a $4 million fine for COPPA violations for obtaining parental consent before processing children’s personal information for targeted advertising. (HyperBeard ultimately paid just $150,000 of that penalty, citing an inability to pay the full amount.)
In September, 2019 Google and its YouTube subsidiary agreed to pay a record $170 million fine to settle allegations by the Federal Trade Commission and the New York Attorney General that the YouTube video sharing service violated COPPA by illegally collecting personal information from children without their parents’ consent.